Northern russian dialects 16

Версия на русском языке



Northern Russian dialects. Issue 16: Interuniversity collection of articles /Editors A. Gerd, E. Puritskaya. — Saint Petersburg: Nestor-Historia, 2017. — 324 p.

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Editors: A. Gerd (Dr., Prof., SPSU, Russia), E. Puritskaya (Cand. Filol., Institute for Linguistic Studies (ILI), Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia).

Executive Board: L. Ivashko (Dr., Prof., SPSU, Russia), I. Lutovinova (Cand. Filol., Assistant Professor, SPSU, Russia), L. Mikhailova (Cand. Filol., Prof., Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk, Russia), S. Myznikov (Corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Dr., Prof., Institute for Linguistic Studies (ILI), Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia).

Editorial Board: N. Bogdanova-Beglaryan (Dr., Prof., SPSU, Russia), V. Kolesov (Dr., Prof., SPSU, Russia), N. Markova (Cand. Filol., Assistant Professor, Petrozavodsk State University, Russia), I. Mullonen (Dr., Prof., Director of Institute of Linguistics, History and Literature, Karelian Research Centre, Petrozavodsk, Russia), E. Nefedova (Dr., Prof., Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia), N. Sergieva (Dr., Prof., Syktyvkar State University, Russia), G. Sudakov (Dr., Prof., Vologda State University, Russia), O. Cherepanova (Dr., Prof., SPSU, Russia).





I. Brodsky
Finno-permic phytonymical portraits: cow vetch (Vicia cracca)

Keywords: Finno-ugric languages, Finno-permic languages, lexics, phytonyms, plants’ names, cow vetch.
The author examines all common names of cow vetch (Vicia cracca) in a group of European Finno-Ugric languages. In these languages there are more than 100 such names, the vast majority of which are composite words made of two or three components. The majority of such names can be found in Baltic Finnish languages. Many of them include determinants of the nomination object class, for example, ‘grass’, ‘pod’.
Many of these names do not refer only to cow vetch, but also to a number of other leguminous plants, such as spring vetch and bush vetch. The last component of such phytonyms often has a meaning ‘peas’. Comparison of cow vetch and peas looks naturally because these plants are very similar to each other, just the cow vetch looks smaller. 
First components of many cow vetch’ names are zoosemizms — names of different animals; in most of the cases those are names of a mouse or a crane. The role of the mouse asan animal in the nomination of Vicia cracca is significant, especially in the Finnish-Permic and Russian languages, and cannot yet be fully explained. The obvious explanation is that the miniatureness of the mouse corresponds with that of the cow vetch’s pods. 
Names of cow vetch’ can often also include the names of crane, or other animals: sheep, crow, snake, cat, cuckoo, grasshopper, rooster etc. Formation of such composite plant’s names can be different in varisous cases.


L. Mikhailova
On the possibilities of distinguishing between the original word and the extended lexical unit

Keywords: dialect word, ethnic contacts, phonetic phenomena, lexical variation, etymology.
The article presents examples of the comparison of the original word and its variant, classified as extensional, that is, having signs of irregular phonetic phenomena of non-origin. An attempt to describe the main steps in the search for external effects on the appearance of the Russian word in conditions of contacts with the agglutinative system languages is made. The attention to the differences in the phonemic composition of the original word and the variant (крахм´ал and рахм´ал, гвыль and выль, глаз´еть and аз´еть, раб´отник and ботник, л´ипа and ал´ипа etc.) is paid, their semantics, the geography of existence in the Russian macrosystem. With the support of research, certain features of the phonological structure of the Turkic and Finno-Ugric languages, which had a strong influence on the transformation of the Russian word, are determined. e proposed analysis can help to elucidate the etymology of words of unusual phonemic composition that have not lost touch with the original root, as well as the solution of questions about their place in the Russian lexical system.

S. Myznikov
Vocabulary of Yaroslavl dialects in the etymological context

Keywords: Yaroslavl, dialects, etymology, Baltism, Argo, Baltic-Finnish, Mari.
The article proposes an etymological analysis of some of the lexemes of Yaroslavl dialects of primordial and borrowed origin. Complex cases of distinguishing units of primordial Slavic origin and similar semantically and phonetically borrowed data are noted. In the Yaroslavl folk vocabulary highlights the vocabulary of the Baltic type, which is: part of the general Baltic-Finnish northern Russian range; elements of argos, penetrated into the Russian dialects with finite Finno-Ugric sources. e lexemes are presented, the etymons of which are in the Mari language.


V. Vasilyev
To the Question of Relationships between the Northern Russian and the Language of Village of Russkoye Ustye in the North-East of Yakutia

Keywords: Village of Russkoye Ustye, Northern Russian, Pomor Dialectal Group, Ways of Colonization of Siberia, Dialectal Vocabulary, Phonetics, Morphology.
The article examines the intersections between traditional dialect in the village of Russkoye Ustye (at the mouth of the river Indigirka, North-Eastern Yakutia), spoken by a subethnic group of Russian population, and the Northern Russian. Listed phonetic and morphological features prove the great resemblance of the Russkoust’inskij dialect with the Pomor dialectal group. Analysis of lexical areals (letters А and Б) not only detects many similarities with the language of Archangel Pomors, but also reveals in the Russkoust’inskij dialect a lot of local lexico-semantic innovations and borrowings from neighboring Siberian languages. In addition, article briefly outlined the main ways of the Russian colonization of Siberia in the medieval time.


M. Korolkova
Words denoting log construction and log joining techniques: a comparative analysis of the material collected in the Sura area of the Volga region and the data of Northern Russian dialects

Keywords: linguogeography, vocabulary, Russian dialects, Sura Volga region, thematic subgroup.
The article provides a linguogeographic analysis for three thematic subgroups of carpentry and woodworking vocabulary units collected in the Sura area of the Volga region in comparison with the data from Standard Russian and from the Ladoga-Tikhvin and Vologda groups of Northern Russian dialects. The analysis of the vocabulary demonstrates its specific properties, the most prominent of which is the territorial variability of the vocabulary combined with its polydialectal character.

Y. Myznikova
The North-Russian component in the fishing vocabulary of Russian dialects of Ulyanovskiy region

Keywords: North Russian dialects, Middle Volga dialects, dialect vocabulary, fishing vocabulary, common vocabulary. 
The article deals with the identification of North Russian elements in the fishing vocabulary of Russian Middle Volga dialects. This thematic group of vocabulary contains a very considerable all-Russian component as well as a large number of local and regional lexemes. North-Russian lexical elements can mainly be found in the thematic subgroup of the names of fishing implements and their parts. There are no North Russian names of fish in the collected data.


M. Bobrova
About the dialect lexical formants: concerning the problem statement (on the material of the lexical-semantic group “Berries”)

Keywords: Russian dialectology, lexical-semantic group, berries, formant.
Structural features of the words of the lexical-semantic group (LSG) “Berries” are considered on the basis of data of the “Dictionary of Russian folk dialects”, the dialect dictionaries of the Perm Krai and the field materials which are received in the Perm Krai. About 900 names of berry plants and their fruits with using a variety of different word-formation means were revealed. According to V. A. Merkulova’s opinion, in the diverse names the process of formation of sustainable lexical-derivational series is realizing. It’s discovered, however, that this hypothesis finds no confirmation in modern dialectal facts. At the same time a substantial part of the nominations has the variants of suffixes of compact group (-ig(a), -ik(a), -in(a), -ikha(a), -its(a), -k(a), -nick), which were previously allocated by the researchers. Historically most of these morphemes are phonetic variants of the same suffix, now its can be complicated suffixal and interfixal elements. As a result the question of the advisability of introducing the concept “formant” (as the affixal part of the appellative, indicating the affiliation of lexeme to the words of LSG with escapement meaning or to the terms and ensuring the similarity of wordformation and phonetic structure of words of this group) is put. Experience of onomastic researches in which the theory of formants apply long and productively, is indicating a high interpretative and informative potential of the formant method in addressing issues of dialectology.


E. Kirilova
Affixes’ types in the morphemic structure of the composite words’ bases and their semantic relations with other morphemes (by the material from “The Dictionary of the Vologda region’s dialects”)

Keywords: the Vologda region’s dialects, a composite word, affixes, affixes’ semantic relations.
e main point of this article is focused on the function and the semantics of the affixes in the structure of the composite words’ bases of nouns, adjectives and verbs in the Vologda region’s dialects. e semantic relations of the composite bases’ affixes with the other morphemes in the bases’ structure are also considered in this research.

I. Kolesova
The semantic models of word-formation paradigms of coherent nouns on the basis of numerals in Russian dialects

Keywords: Russian dialects, the parallel word-formation, word formation on the basis of numerals, coherent derived nouns, semantic syncretism, semantic model of a concurrent derivation, the paradigm of coherent lexemes.
is article focuses on the processes of parallel word formation in the Russian national dialects. Discusses the features of the semantic syncretism producing numerals that participate in the parallel coherent word formation of nouns. Defines the semantic models of their formation, are characterized by the features of their derivational paradigms. The purpose of this article is to explore the phenomenon of semantic syncretism producing numerals that become the basis for the formation of coherent derived nouns in Russian dialects. Also, author is identifying the semantic models of word formation of nouns on the basis of numerals and peculiarities of formation of their derivational paradigms.


E. Lunkova
Word-formational Types of the Dialect Words with Prefixes and Suffixes Derived from Nouns in the Smolensk Dialect

Keywords: Smolensk dialect, confix, word-formational type.
Word-formational types with suffixes and prefixes are interesting for the research purpose in the Smolensk dialect because they have special features as noun-derived words in contrast to verb- and adjective-derived words, from the one side, and include great number of derived nouns with “thing”-meaning in contrast to nature and personal names, from the other side. There are 33 word-formational types with prefixes and suffixes nouns retaining “thing”-meaning in the Smolensk dialect, they include 270 motivated words in general. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of derivational meaning of these words as well as their characteristics compare to the motivated nouns.


L. Novikova
The Derivational Categories of the Formation and Manifestation of a Feature in Tver Dialects

Keywords: Tver dialects, word-formation category, words are adjectival verb basics, markers.
This article discusses the adjectival semantics of verbs, which form the two derivational category-formation and characteristic manifestations, defines the criteria to distinguish between these categories. Identifies the context motivating role in this process, in particular, the presence of words-markers to help differentiate the homonymous education and exclude joining derived verbs other word categories.


L. Yatskevich
Peculiarities of situational metonymy of dialect verbs

Keywords: dialect verb, spoken language, situational metonymy, thematic and conceptual schemes of semantic modulation.
Author gives an overview of the main types of metonymic polysemy of dialect verbs on the base of the Dictionary of Russian Dialects and Vologda Dialect Dictionary. The peculiarities of this grammatical category of words and their content, which semantically modulates depending on the actants in different thematic and conceptual situations, are described. The coordinates of speech situations, which are much more flexible in a spoken language than in a written one, also influence contextual changes in the lexical and grammatical meanings of dialect verbs. The heterogeneity of the lexicographic description of situational metonymy of dialect verbs is also considered.


E. Kolosko 
Dialect vocabulary of St. Petersburg Province in materials of the Dictionary of Russian folk dialects

Keywords: dialectal lexicography, dialectal vocabulary, dialectal wordformation, semantics.

The article discusses the vocabulary of archival material included in the Dictionary of Russian folk dialects as a dialect, recorded in St.Petersburg province. Examples from the Vocabulary shows a close word-formation and semantic relationship of the St. Petersburg dialect with interdialectal vocabulary and dialect words, recorded in the mid XIX century to early XX century St. Petersburg in the neighboring province areas. The article also discusses the unique St. Petersburg word forms and meanings.

A. Levichkin
A fragment of the russian-netherlandish dictionary of the XVII century from Pskov

Keywords: historical lexicography, historical lexicology, dictionary, phrasebook, russian dialects.
A fragment of the russian-netherlandish dictionary with the letters Б-Е is placed in the encyclopaedic manuscript of the XVII century, the National Library of Russia, Solovetskoe sobr., № 924/1034. The article gives a description of the vocabulary, and also gives parallels to dictionary articles on other dictionary sources of the XVII – early XVIII centuries.



N. Gantsovskaya, T. Gorlova
Features of dialects of the Russian North in Kostroma dialects with transitivity being outlined (in terms of toponymy of the town of Nerekhta)

Keywords: Northern Russian dialects, Kostroma dialects, town of Nerekhta, linguistic geography, toponymy, micro-toponymy.

The process of transition of dialects of the Russian North to ones of Central Russia is examined in terms of the dialects of Nerekhta district of Kostroma Oblast. Currently, Nerekhta dialects reflect features, on the one hand, of the dialects of Vologda-Vyatka group, while on the other hand, of Vladimir-Povolzhye group and do combine Northern Russian and Central Russian features.
Arguments for confirming interchangeability of the notions “North Russian lexis type” and “Common Russian lexis type”; as well as for confirming the theory, that the lexis type of the dialects under consideration once became a thing of the Russian literary language, are advanced in the article. What became one of the sources of establishment of Nerekhta zone lingual geographic status, was Nerekhta urban toponymicon which had emerged for centuries on the basis of landscape names as well as on the basis of nearby rural settlements’ micro-toponymy.


Yu. Dracheva, T. Komissarova
The ‘childhood world’ in oral stories of the Vologda region inhabitants (on the basis of The Circle of Life electronic database)

Keywords: cognitive dialectology, dialectal language picture of the world, Vologda dialects, The Circle of Life electronic database.
The article focuses on the problems of cognitive dialectology and one of its key concepts, that is the dialectal language picture of the world. The authors study the linguistic means of expression of the ‘childhood world’ that includes denomination of children of different ages according to their physical, social, and behavioral characteristics, description of various attributes of childhood (e. g. clothes, toys, diseases), and types of children’s activity (e. g. play, work). In the article, the ‘childhood world’ is presented as a part of the communicative space of Vologda dialects (on the basis of The Vologda dialects dictionary), and as an individual and creative perception of the village life in regional literary works and memoirs and stories of the inhabitants of the Vologda region (on the basis of The Circle of Life electronic database). The authors conclude that the regional vocabulary of childhood reveals such elements of the dialectal language picture of the world as the idea of biological survival, ‘naivety’, utility, stereotypes, expressiveness, as well as the stages of social adaptation in the perception of rural community members.

L. Ivashko, D. Potsepnya, I. Lutovinova, M. Tarasova, O. Trofimkina, A. Eskova, I. Kukushkina
Russian Northwest Country Folklife-orthodox Calendar (spring period)

Keywords: ethnography, dialect, Pskov regional dictionary, church calendar, folk calendar, saint’s day, revered saint, ritual.
The essay based on the material of Russian dialect speech of rural residents of the North-West of Russia presents the everyday life of the peasants during the year. In chronological order the contents of the spring cycle (March – May) is described.

E. Iliina
Clothes of Rezha inhabitants as an element of the local picture of the world

Keywords: dialectal language picture of the world, Vologda dialects, clothing vocabulary.
The article presents the description of the language picture of the world in the perception of rural residents of the Vologda region on the basis of the field records of dialectal oral speech, which are thematically related to the sphere of traditional clothing, footwear, hats, ornamentation, etc. The relevance of the research is determined by the necessity of a comprehensive ethnolinguistic description of the Rezha dialect. The basis of the research includes observations of dialectological expeditions and a card index of the Rezha dialect dictionary. As a result, the research focuses on the thematically homogeneous linguistic data, that facilitated the revealing of the specificity of the local linguistic picture of the world, which are determined by the necessity of biological survival in the severe natural conditions of the Russian North and the communicative adaptation of a person in the rural society.

I. Kachinskaya 
The terms defining ‘a father’ in Arkhangelsk dialects

Keywords: Russian dialectology, Northern dialects, terms of kinship, a father.
The article addresses the operation of terms (indicating) defining ‘a father’ in Arkhangelsk dialects, provides the inventory of terms used to refer to a father in the nominative and vocative functions, lists collocations and word combination, studies grammar and semantic aspects. Also noted are metonymic and metaphorical transfers: the terms defining ‘a father’ can be used to refer to the stepfather, father-in-law, husband, ancestor, not relative, male animal, thing, mythological spirits-masters, can become interjections.